Semi-Automated parking systems are self-parking applications providing stacked parking without the need for an attendant. These systems are hybrid vehicle stackers that provide direct access to any vehicles from grade level and are controlled by programmable logic control (PLC) software that is typically activated by a keypad or remote control.

Semi-Automated Lift-Slide Puzzle Parking

The lift-slide or puzzle-parking system is a multilevel, customizable solution for storing cars in vertical and horizontal arrays. Each matrix consists of all adjoining vertical stacks, including one partially empty stack that allows for required voids when a particular platform is requested. The system can be customized for indoor and outdoor applications and may include a roof, side screening, and remotely controlled garage doors.

Bronx Puzzle Parking

Configurations vary from simple two-high systems to six-high and two-below grade (using an in-ground pit), providing a vertical stacking capability of up to eight spaces in an area traditionally occupied by one vehicle.


All positions from grade to one-below the top level move horizontally and vertically. These levels also require one empty position. All positions in the top level (and pit, where applicable) move vertically. Typically this system is assigned parking and the system shuffles the vehicles in order to bring the assigned parking space to the ground level.

Carousel Parking

The carousel parking system is a platform-rotating structure that revolves clockwise and counterclockwise to deliver vehicles to a shared access point. This system can park seven to twelve cars in the space of two

In-Ground Pit Parking

Pit parking systems are used and integrated with semi-automated systems, and they are commonly used in private residential applications. The pit parking system is an in-ground multilevel stacker for storing cars below grade. The device lowers vehicles on fixed platforms into a concealed vault so that additional cars can be parked above.

Pit Parking System

Pit systems are designed for up to two levels below grade and one optional position at grade. The upper platform can be designed to match the surrounding hardscape or landscape (paved surface, landscaped area, courtyard, etc.).


As high-density parking systems are more prevalent in the United States, the semi-automated lift-slide or puzzle parking system is one of the more popular types, particularly in multi-family developments, due to customizability, cost-efficiency and self-park capability.

Pit parking is often integrated with other semi-automated parking systems as shown in this lift-slide puzzle parking system.


This content is part of The American Institute of Architects (AIA) and U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)-accredited course, Introduction to High-Density Parking Systems. Take the course online or register for/request one of our webinars to learn more and earn continuing education points.